Describe the process of heterodyning?

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What is a super heterodyne receiver?

A superheterodyne receiver is a Radio Frequency receiver method that multiplies the received signal frequency with a local oscillator frequency to get frequencies that are the sum and difference of the 2 frequencies. For example, if the received signal is 5MHz and the local oscillator frequency is 4MHz, they are multiplied together. 1MHz and 9MHz frequencies would be gotten. Usually the 1MHz is the Intermediate Frequency (IF). It will be admitted (through a band pass filter) later passed through the required electronic circuits for proper processing.. There is also the method of the Variable Tuned Filter.

Describe the process of cell division?

There are 2 cell divisions, mitosis and meiosis Mitosis - Division of cell to form 2 identical daughter cells that are identical to the parent. Meiosis - Division of cell to form haploid cells(half the genetic information) There are 4 main phases, the S1, M, S2 and interphase. Interphase is the phase when the cell is not dividing, S1 is the phase where new organelles are formed, genetic material doubled and such, S2 is when the cell remain metabolically active. The M phase has 4 subphases- prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. prophase - nuclear membrane disintegrates, chromatin forms chromosomes metaphase - chromosomes align at the cell equator anaphase - sister chromosomes separate telophase - chromosomes reach end of each cell and new nuclear membranes form around them During telophase, cell simultaneously undergo cytokinesis, where the cell divides to 2. In Meiosis There are 2 stages, meiosis I - prophase I, metaphase I, anaphase I and telophase I. Meiosis II - prophase II, metaphase II, anaphase II and telophase II. Meiosis II is exactly similar to mitosis. Meiosis I whereas the only difference is that in prophase I, sister chromosomes pair up with other sister chromosomes to form bivalents and crossing over occurs. Also, in anaphase I, bivalents separate.

Describe the process of an earthquake?

The Earth can be compared to an apple - the Earth's crustin comparison to Earth is as thin as is the outer covering of an apple compared to an apple. It is made up of parts like a human skull and the float/buoy over the inner molten magma so the parts called tectonic plates can slide when the collide at 180 degrees mountains are formed. As and when some interlock is there, the plates keep on applying sliding or pulling or pushing force and when the force becomes large enough the interlock gives away and a shock wave called earthquake is generated which can also be associated with exlpulsion of magma called volcanic eruption

Describe the processes of meiosis?

it starts out with interphase, which is where the cell grows, reproduces it genome into two sister chromatids, which attach into tetrads (4 connected chromosomes, two sets of each) and gets ready for meiosis. Meiosis is when the nucleus actually break aparts and it starts with prophase, where the mitotic spindle (think of it as a pulley) starts to form, the nucleus breaks up. In metaphase, the mitotic spindle (made of microfilaments or long spaghetti like proteins) is complete, attached to kinetochores in the centromeres (the attach places of the sister chromatids) or other microfilaments. The spindle then starts to push on other microfilaments in anaphase, elongating the cell and breaking apart the tetrads, sending one sister chromatid to each side. . Telophase is when the new nuclei reform and gets ready to prepare mitosis to make sex cells. Cytokinesis, not part of meiosis but definitely related is when the two cells separate due to a groove that eventually splits the cell into two. The groove is made by microfilaments tightening like a thread around the middle of the cell. Then the two cells undergo mitosis, splitting the two sister chromatids into four haploid cells. The first part is called meiosis 1 and the second is meiosis 2 (the mitosis part) i found this on yahoo answers. thanks alex H.!

How would you describe the process of evolution?

The process of evolution is in it's definition. Evolution is the change in allele frequency over time in a population of organisms. Organisms are selected based on their reproductive success and this changes the alleles in the populations gene pool over time and this is the process of evolution. Change over time. That simple.

Describe the process of endocytosis and exocytosis?

Endocytosis is when the cell membrane engulfs a particle and brings it into the cell, forming a vesicle. Exocytosis is when particles are expelled, usually from the Golgi apparatus forming vesicles and having it fuse with the surface of the cell.

Describe the process of photosynthesis and respiration?

The equation for respiration is: Glucose + Oxygen ---------> Carbon Dioxide + Water (+ Energy) The equation for photosynthesis is: Light Carbon Dioxide + Water ----------------> Glucose + Oxygen Energy So basically photosynthesis is the opposite of respiration and vise versa! :) I hope this has helped

Describe process of DNA replication?

The double helix of the DNA unwinds. Then, the enzyme helicase'unzips' the DNA by breaking the hydrogen bonds. Then, the enzymeDNA Polymerase pairs each of the two strands with the correctnitrogenous bases. The top strand is called the 'leading strand'and the bottom strand is called the 'lagging strand.' Then theenzyme ligase glues together the different fragments of the laggingstrand of DNA. Now we have two exact replications of DNA, each with46 chromosomes called daughter cells.

Briefly describe the investment process?

A brief description of the investment process is that you allocatea specific sum of money and buy stocks, bonds, or other investmentoptions. You either make money or lose money depending on how yourchoices do in the market. Most people hire some type of investmentadviser.

Describe the process of DNA translation?

1.mRNA moves out of nucleus and into cytoplasm. 2.mRNA attaches to a ribosome. 3.Transfer RNA(tRNA) brings the correct amino acid to build up the protein. Anticodon (3 bases on tRNA) Matches us to codons on mRNA. 4.Protein(Chain of amino acids) detaches from tRNA and goes off to work in the cell. Thank you! My facebook ID: Nathan Deng. Willing to help!. Read more: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_the_process_of_DNA_translation#ixzz1mgTcOFd4

Describe two weathering processes?

1. Chemical Weathering: Where different chemicals such as acid rain react with soft stone such as chalk and dissolves it away causing weathering. 2. Biological Weathering : Where organisms such as trees have an effect of rocks due to their roots breaking away at them when they grow through the soils underneath.

Describe the processes of photosynthesis and chemosynthesis?

photosynthesis is the process of food-making for marine organisms and plants using light energy from the sun. chemosynthesis is where organisms don't depend on the sun and photosynthesis. chemosynthesis uses sulfur and nitrogen instead of the sun to produce food.

Describe the process by which the sun was formed?

All the matter in the solar system -- most of it hydrogen -- was floating around in space a bit over four and a half billion years ago as a cloud of mostly hydrogen gas (the lightest and by far most abundant element in the known universe). Gravity caused the matter to fall in on itself into a spinning disc, kind of frisbee-shaped with a big glob in the middle. Gradually, the glob fell in on itself more and more until it became so dense that the normal resistance between atoms failed and nuclear fusion -- the 'fire' that is sunlight -- started and the sun was born. The leftover matter in the spinning disc orbiting around the sun condensed into asteroid-like planetesimals and clouds of various gases that themselves eventually clumped together to form the planets.

Describe The process of inspiration in humans?

im doing my sports studies and need some help! HELP!! lol x *** I'm doing this for Human Bio. According to what I found out, the process of inspiration is the removal of air form an external environment. The external intercostals contract and the inner ones relax while the ribcage will move upwards then outwards. The diaphragm muscles will contract and flatten into a dome shape. This increases activity in the lungs and the volume of thoracic activity. The pressure in the lungs decreases lower then atmospheric pressure forcing air to rush into the lungs through trachea.

Describe the process of convection?

convection as you know is one of the three ways in which heat is transferred, the other two are conduction and radiation. there are two types of convection heat transfer, one being free convection which is ambient air molecules which are in contact with each other which transfer heat to neighboring molecules. The other type of convection is forced convection where the heat transfer is not allowed to occur ambiently, rather it is made to occur faster with the use of a mechanical device.

Describe the process by which a fungus feeds?

First, the fungus grows hyphae into the food source. Then digestive chemicals ooze from the hyphae into the food. The chemicals break the food down into small substances that can be absorbed by the hyphae.

Can you describe the process of the ozone depletion?

The ozone depletion process begins when CFCs and other ozone-depleting substances (ODS) are emitted into the atmosphere(1). Winds efficiently mix the troposphere and evenly distribute the gases. CFCs are extremely stable, and they do not dissolve in rain. After a period of several years, ODS molecules reach the stratosphere, about 10 kilometers above the Earth's surface (2). Strong UV light breaks apart the ODS molecule. CFCs, HCFCs, carbon tetrachloride, methyl chloroform, and other gases release chlorine atoms, and halons and methyl bromide release bromine atoms (3). It is these atoms that actually destroy ozone, not the intact ODS molecule. It is estimated that one chlorine atom can destroy over 100,000 ozone molecules before it is removed from the stratosphere (4).

What is the difference between heterodyning and superheterodyning?

When you combine signals of the same or different frequencies. The resulting energy will be each original frequency and the sum of the frequencies and a frequency that is the difference of the two signals. This is the basis of heterodyning. This allows us to take an information signal and "upconvert" it to the RF realm for transmission. But the same processes can be used to "downconvert" or to beat one signal against the other to get a lower frequency representation of the energy.. After hererodyning came out, newer radios were sold as superheterodyning as a marketing ploy.. Sorry, but it is not more complex than that. This was back in the early 20th century and the idea of fair marketing or truthful processes were not legal issues like today.. Have a nice day. Bob

Which of these best describe the process of chemosynthesis?

1. First, vents disperse hydrothermal fluids containing hydrogen sulfide into the deep ocean water. Next, microbes living around the vents consume this hydrogen sulfide, as well as carbon dioxide and oxygen. The microbes then get energy by breaking down the hydrogen sulfide. This energy is used to convert the carbon dioxide and oxygen into sugars. Finally, the microbes release sulfur and water.

Describe chewing in process of digestion?

Chewing breaks down food so that when it enters the stomach in small pieces, it has more surface area to be exposed to and broken down by enzymes. It also mixes food with saliva which contains other digestive enzymes.

How do you describe the blood-clotting process?

If we look inside the artery there is red blood cell which carries oxygen to all cells and organ. Also there are two type of cholesterol, LDL-c and HDL-c. LDL-c is bad cholesterol, because it can lead to clot the arteries. And HDL-c is good cholesterol, because it is believed that to help remove bad cholesterol from the body. Generally my aim to keep good cholesterols level high and bad cholesterols levels low. Because when there is too much bad cholesterols in the blood this can cause serious problem. When there is damage to the lining in the arteries, it can by for example, high blood pressure then LDL-c more likely to enter the wall in the artery. So when LDL-c bad cholesterols enters the damage wall of the artery it changes and can lead to inflammation. Over the time inflammation in the artery create something known as plaque. Plaque can start forming an early age. During over the time this can lead clot in the artery, this can happen in a numbers different site in the body, and can get progressively worse over the time.

Can you describe the process of music publishing?

Music publishing ensures songwriters and composers receive paymentfor their commercially used music. Publishers have contracts withartists, print their music, and copyright it for 28 years, plus 14year renewal.

Describe the process of the judicial review?

To decide whether the preceding court correctly decided the case in accordance with law. The appellate court decides whether the preceding court's decisions correctly decided the law in accordance with the facts, whether there were serious errors, or whether the court did something wrong. If there are no errors the appellate court upholds or confirms the prior decision. Otherwise it sends it back to the trial court with instructions and potential retrial. Sometimes it finds the decision totally wrong and discards it altogether, potentially because the case should not have been tried or because there was no case.

Can you describe the process of digestion in humans?

The whole digestive system is around 12 meters long. In a healthy human adult this process can take between 24 and 72 hours. Food digestion physiology varies between individuals and upon other factors such as the characteristics of the food and size of the meal. [16] Phases of gastric secretion . Cephalic phase - This phase occurs before food enters the stomach and involves preparation of the body for eating and digestion. Sight and thought stimulate the cerebral cortex. Taste and smell stimulus is sent to the hypothalamus and medulla oblongata. After this it is routed through the vagus nerve and release of acetylcholine. Gastric secretion at this phase rises to 40% of maximum rate. Acidity in the stomach is not buffered by food at this point and thus acts to inhibit parietal (secretes acid) and G cell (secretes gastrin) activity via D cell secretion of somatostatin. . Gastric phase - This phase takes 3 to 4 hours. It is stimulated by distension of the stomach, presence of food in stomach and decrease in pH. Distention activates long and myenteric reflexes. This activates the release of acetylcholine, which stimulates the release of more gastric juices. As protein enters the stomach, it binds to hydrogen ions, which raises the pH of the stomach. Inhibition of gastrin and gastric acid secretion is lifted. This triggers G cells to release gastrin, which in turn stimulates parietal cells to secrete gastric acid. Gastric acid is about 0.5% hydrochloric acid (HCl), which lowers the pH to the desired pH of 1-3. Acid release is also triggered by acetylcholine and histamine. . Intestinal phase - This phase has 2 parts, the excitatory and the inhibitory. Partially digested food fills the duodenum. This triggers intestinal gastrin to be released. Enterogastric reflex inhibits vagal nuclei, activating sympathetic fibers causing the pyloric sphincter to tighten to prevent more food from entering, and inhibits local reflexes. Oral cavity . Main article: Mouth (human). In humans , digestion begins in the Mouth, otherwise known as the "Buccal Cavity", where food is chewed. Saliva is secreted in large amounts (1-1.5 litres/day) by three pairs of exocrine salivary glands (parotid, submandibular, and sublingual) in the oral cavity, and is mixed with the chewed food by the tongue. Saliva cleans the oral cavity, moistens the food, and contains digestive enzymes such as salivary amylase, which aids in the chemical breakdown of polysaccharides such as starch into disaccharides such as maltose. It also contains mucus, a glycoprotein that helps soften the food and form it into a bolus. An additional enzyme, lingual lipase, hydrolyzes long-chain triglycerides into partial glycerides and free fatty acids. Swallowing transports the chewed food into the esophagus, passing through the oropharynx and hypopharynx. The mechanism for swallowing is coordinated by the swallowing center in the medulla oblongata and pons. The reflex is initiated by touch receptors in the pharynx as the bolus of food is pushed to the back of the mouth. Pharynx . Main article: Human pharynx. The pharynx is the part of the neck and throat situated immediately behind the mouth and nasal cavity, and cranial, or superior, to the esophagus. It is part of the digestive system and respiratory system. Because both food and air pass through the pharynx, a flap of connective tissue, the epiglottis closes over the trachea when food is swallowed to prevent choking or asphyxiation. The oropharynx is that part of the pharynx behind the oral cavity. It is lined with stratified squamous epithelium. The nasopharynx lies behind the nasal cavity and like the nasal passages is lined with ciliated columnar pseudostratified epithelium. Like the oropharynx above it the hypopharynx (laryngopharynx) serves as a passageway for food and air and is lined with a stratified squamous epithelium. It lies inferior to the upright epiglottis and extends to the larynx, where the respiratory and digestive pathways diverge. At that point, the laryngopharynx is continuous with the esophagus. During swallowing, food has the "right of way", and air passage temporarily stops. Esophagus . Main article: Esophagus. The oesophagus is a narrow muscular tube about 20-30 centimeters long, which starts at the pharynx at the back of the mouth, passes through the thoracic diaphragm, and ends at the cardiac orifice of the stomach. The wall of the esophagus is made up of two layers of smooth muscles, which form a continuous layer from the oesophagus to the colon and contract slowly, over long periods of time. The inner layer of muscles is arranged circularly in a series of descending rings, while the outer layer is arranged longitudinally. At the top of the esophagus, is a flap of tissue called the epiglottis that closes during swallowing to prevent food from entering the trachea (windpipe). The chewed food is pushed down the oesophagus to the stomach through peristaltic contraction of these muscles. It takes only about seven seconds for food to pass through the oesophagus and now digestion takes place. Stomach . Main article: Stomach. The stomach is a small, 'J'-shaped pouch with walls made of thick, distensible muscles, which stores and helps break down food. Food reduced to very small particles is more likely to be fully digested in the small intestine, and stomach churning has the effect of assisting the physical disassembly begun in the mouth. Ruminants, who are able to digest fibrous material (primarily cellulose), use fore-stomachs and repeated chewing to further the disassembly. Rabbits and some other animals pass some material through their entire digestive systems twice. Most birds ingest small stones to assist in mechanical processing in gizzards. Food enters the stomach through the cardiac orifice where it is further broken apart and thoroughly mixed with gastric acid, pepsin and other digestive enzymes to break down proteins. The enzymes in the stomach also have an optimum conditions, meaning that they work at a specific pH and temperature better than any others. The acid itself does not break down food molecules, rather it provides an optimum pH for the reaction of the enzyme pepsin and kills many microorganisms that are ingested with the food. It can also denature proteins. This is the process of reducing polypeptide bonds and disrupting salt bridges, which in turn causes a loss of secondary, tertiary, or quaternary protein structure. The parietal cells of the stomach also secrete a glycoprotein called intrinsic factor, which enables the absorption of vitamin B-12. Mucus neck cells are present in the gastric glands of the stomach. They secrete mucus, which along with gastric juice plays an important role in lubrication and protection of the mucosal epithelium from excoriation by the highly concentrated hydrochloric acid. Other small molecules such as alcohol are absorbed in the stomach, passing through the membrane of the stomach and entering the circulatory system directly. Food in the stomach is in semi-liquid form, which upon completion is known as chyme. After consumption of food, digestive "tonic" and peristaltic contractions begin, which helps break down the food and move it through. [16] When the chyme reaches the opening to the duodenum known as the pylorus, contractions "squirt" the food back into the stomach through a process called retropulsion, which exerts additional force and further grinds down food into smaller particles. [16] Gastric emptying is the release of food from the stomach into the duodenum; the process is tightly controlled with liquids being emptied much more quickly than solids. [16] Gastric emptying has attracted medical interest as rapid gastric emptying is related to obesity and delayed gastric emptying syndrome is associated with diabetes mellitus, aging, and gastroesophageal reflux. [16] The transverse section of the alimentary canal reveals four (or five, see description under mucosa) distinct and well developed layers within the stomach: . Serous membrane, a thin layer of mesothelial cells that is the outermost wall of the stomach. . Muscular coat, a well-developed layer of muscles used to mix ingested food, composed of three sets running in three different alignments. The outermost layer runs parallel to the vertical axis of the stomach (from top to bottom), the middle is concentric to the axis (horizontally circling the stomach cavity) and the innermost oblique layer, which is responsible for mixing and breaking down ingested food, runs diagonal to the longitudinal axis. The inner layer is unique to the stomach, all other parts of the digestive tract have only the first two layers. . Submucosa, composed of connective tissue that links the inner muscular layer to the mucosa and contains the nerves, blood and lymph vessels. . Mucosa is the extensively folded innermost layer. It can be divided into the epithelium, lamina propria, and the muscularis mucosae, though some consider the outermost muscularis mucosae to be a distinct layer, as it develops from the mesoderm rather than the endoderm (thus making a total of five layers). The epithelium and lamina are filled with connective tissue and covered in gastric glands that may be simple or branched tubular, and secrete mucus, hydrochloric acid, pepsinogen and rennin. The mucus lubricates the food and also prevents hydrochloric acid from acting on the walls of the stomach. Small intestine . Main article: Small intestine. It has three parts: the Duodenum, Jejunum, and Ileum. After being processed in the stomach, food is passed to the small intestine via the pyloric sphincter. The majority of digestion and absorption occurs here after the milky chyme enters the duodenum. Here it is further mixed with three different liquids: . Bile, which emulsifies fats to allow absorption, neutralizes the chyme and is used to excrete waste products such as bilin and bile acids. Bile is produced by the liver and then stored in the gallbladder where it will be released to the small intestine via the bile duct. The bile in the gallbladder is much more concentrated. . Pancreatic juice made by the pancreas. It secrete enzymes such as pancreatic amylase, pancreatic lipase, and trypsinogen (inactive form of protease). . Intestinal juice secreted by the intestinal glands in the small intestine. It contains enzymes such as enteropeptidase, erepsin, trypsin, chymotrypsin, maltase, lactase and sucrase (all three of which process only sugars). The pH level increases in the small intestine as all three fluids are alkaline. A more basic environment causes more helpful enzymes to activate and begin to help in the breakdown of molecules such as fat globules. Small, finger-like structures called villi, and their epithelial cells is covered with numerous microvilli improve the absorption of nutrients by increasing the surface area of the intestine and enhancing speed at which nutrients are absorbed. Blood containing the absorbed nutrients is carried away from the small intestine via the hepatic portal vein and goes to the liver for filtering, removal of toxins, and nutrient processing. The small intestine and remainder of the digestive tract undergoes peristalsis to transport food from the stomach to the rectum and allow food to be mixed with the digestive juices and absorbed. The circular muscles and longitudinal muscles are antagonistic muscles, with one contracting as the other relaxes. When the circular muscles contract, the lumen becomes narrower and longer and the food is squeezed and pushed forward. When the longitudinal muscles contract, the circular muscles relax and the gut dilates to become wider and shorter to allow food to enter. Large intestine . Main article: Large intestine. After the food has been passed through the small intestine, the food enters the large intestine. Within it, digestion is retained long enough to allow fermentation due to the action of gut bacteria, which breaks down some of the substances that remain after processing in the small intestine; some of the breakdown products are absorbed. In humans, these include most complex saccharides (at most three disaccharides are digestible in humans). In addition, in many vertebrates, the large intestine reabsorbs fluid; in a few, with desert lifestyles, this reabsorbtion makes continued existence possible. In humans, the large intestine is roughly 1.5 meters long, with three parts: the cecum at the junction with the small intestine, the colon, and the rectum. The colon itself has four parts: the ascending colon, the transverse colon, the descending colon, and the sigmoid colon. The large intestine absorbs water from the chyme and stores feces until it can be egested. Food products that cannot go through the villi, such as cellulose (dietary fiber), are mixed with other waste products from the body and become hard and concentrated feces. The feces is stored in the rectum for a certain period and then the stored feces is eliminated from the body due to the contraction and relaxation through the anus. The exit of this waste material is regulated by the anal sphincter.

Describe the process of cooking vegetables?

The process includes 1. Washing- washing/rinsing the vegetables in fresh water is to remove dirts and soil 2. Peeling- peel the skin of the veg like tubers including beets, potato, yam, carot, radish to avoid microbial contamination. 3.cutting- cut the vegetables in larger size. If you cut in small pieces the water soluble vitamins present in vegetables are losed. 4. Cooking/boiling- dont cook in open pan, try to cook in closed pan, to avoid evaporation of vitamins.

How do you describe the voting process?

The voting process is fairly simple to describe, but thedescription may differ depending on which vote you are discussing.A classroom vote would entail everyone in the classroom voting yesor no on a topic, and the teacher counting their votes to decidewhich side was victorious.