A very broad and thought-provoking question. The primary factors are readiness to learn, ability to learn, readiness to teach, ability to present, and matching material to th…e level of the student. .
The factors that are secondary to these are a suitable environment for learning (proper materials, safety, acceptable light, heat, air flow, noise levels, etc.); a positive group environment (a favorable attitude toward learning, a climate of peer support, trust, honesty) and absence of major negative factors (excessive stress, anger, frustration, interruptions, overloaded work, unrealistic expectations). .
Failure of any of these items will generally result in little or no academic progress. For example, I could give a wonderful lesson, great materials, fine presentation, cool technology, have really smart kids ... but a fight on campus right before class destroys all ability to teach within the class. If half the class stayed up until 4 AM because the newest Wii game came out yesterday, again little or no learning will take place. The teachers that are really excellent have a way of keeping the positive factors going and making certain that few of the negative factors creep into her classroom. (MORE)