10 Principles of Organisation by Lyndall Urwick.
According to Urwick (Notes on the Theory of Organization, 1952), an organisation is built on ten principles: 1. The principle of the objective - Every organisation and every part of the organisation must be an expression of the purpose of the undertaking concerned, or it is eaningless and therefore redundant. 2. The principle of specialisation - The activities of every member of any organised group should be confined, as far as possible, to the performance of a single function. 3. The principle of co-ordination - The purpose of organising per se, as distinguished from the purpose of the undertaking, is to facilitate co-ordination: unity of effort. 4. The principle of authority - In every organised group the supreme authority must rest somewhere. There should be a clear line of authority to every individual in the group
5. The principle of responsibility - The responsibility of the superior for the acts of the subordinate is absolute. 6. The principle of definition - The content of each position, both the duties involved, the authority and responsibility contemplated and the relationships with other positions should be clearly defined in writing and published to all concerned. 7. The principle of correspondence - In every position, the responsibility and the authority should correspond. 8. The principle of span of control - No person should supervise more than five, or at most, six direct subordinates whose work interlocks. 9. The principle of balance - It is essential that the various units of an organisation should be kept in balance. 10. The principle of continuity - Re-organisation is a continuous process: in every undertaking specific provision should be made for it."