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What are vaccines for imfluenza made from?
Vaccines are made in several ways. However, all vaccines have the same general goal: weaken the virus or bacteria in a way that allows the recipient to develop an immune respo…nse without developing any symptoms of infection. Vaccines are made using the same components that are found in the natural virus or bacteria. Vaccines are made of small amount of the bacteria, virus or other antigen and administered to stimulate the immune system to create antibodies to prevent future infections with the disease. Viruses grows in primary cells, or on continuous cell lines
Two were made at almost the same time Saulk is credited with the one we used first. We certainly had issues at first and some contracted polio that would not have otherw…ise. It was still overall a great success story, savings millions over the years.
A short answer: The vaccines are made by isolating and growing culture samples of the organism causing the disease. The laboratory uses a medium to grow the organisms. Then t…he pathogens are weakened (attenuated) by chemicals, or they are totally inactivated, or only pieces of them are used so that they can not make you ill anymore but will still provoke an immune response. These are then put into a purified solution that can be administered, and preservatives are added to make them last and safe to use after storage. Finally, they are tested and packaged into syringes or vials for inspection and testing by the approval authorities (such as the Food and Drug Administration - FDA - in the US). Once approved for use, the vaccines are distributed to the locations or providers who can administer the vaccines to patients. A bit longer answer: The process is similar, but slightly different, between viral vaccine production and bacterial vaccine production. As an example of how vaccines are made, here is an explanation of how the swine flu (H1N1/09) vaccine was made in 2009: First, seed stock of the specific virus strain, for which the vaccine was made to provide immunity, was selected, collected and grown so that there would be parts of it to put in the vaccine. The World Health Organization (WHO) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), along with scientists and epidemiologists, examined the viruses that were isolated from patients and selected specific strains of it for testing to see how easily they could be "grown" or cultured. This needed to be an easy and quickly grown virus strain to produce the vaccine as soon as possible for the new virus during the swine flu pandemic. Once the stock of the virus that matched well to the types spreading in the pandemic was selected, it was distributed to drug vaccine manufacturers to begin the development and production. The drug companies used chicken eggs as a culture medium and "grew" the virus. Then they harvested portions to use in the vaccines and purified them to remove as much egg protein and potential contaminants as possible. The viruses were then either severely weakened with heat or chemicals (or other methods), so they would be unable to cause infections anymore in the case of live attenuated/weakened vaccines (LAIV), or they would be completely "killed" to use in the inactivated "dead" vaccines. In the US, adjuvants, which help increase the rapid production of the vaccines, were not being used for this vaccine. Vaccines in other parts of the world were produced with adjuvants. The viruses were then combined with the other ingredients that may or may not include preservatives, along with stabilizers (gelatin sometimes), and liquid such as saline to be the medium to contain the vaccine for administration. Trials were conducted before the vaccine was presented for approval from the regulating agencies (in the US, the Food and Drug Administration - FDA). The vaccine was then packaged for distribution. See the related questions for what ingredients are in the swine flu vaccines as examples of commonly used materials in the manufacturing process. Vaccinations are very weak strains of diseases that you put in your body which can easily be handled by your immune system. This is done so that you can develop sufficient white blood cells to fight of the infections disease when it comes to you in full strength.
in the late 1700s.
Live vaccinia virus.
Edward Jenner was the first person recored to make a vaccine.
You would have thought that vaccines are made of antibodies that fight against the disease that is supposed to. But the real fact is that the vaccine contains a modified type …of the disease causing organism!When an infectious organism enters our body,the nature of our body is to create antibodies against the organism.In certain diseases like chicken pox,etc. when the body is affected,the antibodies created as a reaction are not enoughto suppress the disease.Hence a less harmless type of the disease is given to the body so that it creates antibodies.So when the disease comes the antibodies already in the body suppress the disease. Basically there are two types, live cell and dead cell. The body will generated antibodies due to the presence of the dead cells or the live cells, thus preventing the disease. The cells may be different from the cells that cause the disease. For example cox pox antibodies attack small pox cells. You would have thought that vaccines are made of antibodies that fight against the disease that is supposed to. But the real fact is that the vaccine contains a modified type of the disease causing organism!When an infectious organism enters our body,the nature of our body is to create antibodies against the organism.In certain diseases like chicken pox,etc. when the body is affected,the antibodies created as a reaction are not enoughto suppress the disease.Hence a less harmless type of the disease is given to the body so that it creates antibodies.So when the disease comes the antibodies already in the body suppress the disease.
Jonas Edward Salk
According to scientists, the first vaccine ever made was from Edward Jenner who created the first smallpox vaccination in 1796.
I'm guessing same as today, weakened or dead viruses were put into a vaccine and voila.
feces and tissues collected on the farm
If the influenza vaccine is to be made from a live virus, then the strain is selected, grown, and then weakened (usually chemically) to be able to trigger an immune response b…ut not be strong enough to cause the infection. If it is to be made using a "dead" or inert virus that also does the same to trigger immune response and antibody production without causing infection, then the virus is grown and then made inactive before being used in the vaccine. Once the virus particles needed are produced one of the two ways above, they are purified, isolated and combined with administration medium that is either for injection or for use with a mist/inhalation administration medium. There are sometimes adjuvants added that will make a little go a long way (these are not used in the US flu vaccines). This way smaller doses are needed and so more vaccine can be distributed to more people in shorter times. This is helpful if the strain is not easily or quickly grown and vaccine is needed quickly. There are also preservatives added to maintain the purity of the vaccine. This is needed especially in multi-dose vials that are not used entirely upon opening of the sterile vials. Single dose vials and syringes are usually available without the addition of these preservatives for people with special needs or allergies to the preservatives. For a full list of the common ingredients used today in flu vaccines, see the related question below about the specific ingredients in the swine flu vaccine.
They take the virus and reduce its affects and dilute it in very small quantities and add sterile water. So when injected in the bodie it kills the virus easy and the body rem…embers the antibodies to the virus for about ten year. Boosting the defense of the body.
Poliomyelitis as two vaccines: Jonas Salk developed the first in 1952 and used first in 1955. This vaccine used an inactive virus. Albert Sabin developed an attenuated vaccine… which was available in 1962. The Salk vaccine was given by injection and the Sabin by mouth.