What is non-polarity?
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Organic Chemistry Supervisor
Tetrahydrocannabinol is non-polar. It has a saturated fatty acid chain meaning that it is hydrophobic and therefore non-polar, since it won't bond with H2O
NI3 is a polar molecule, one must remember that the lone pairs will skew the electron geometry.
In chemistry, the term solution can take on a variety of different meanings.The term is often used in a very broad and comprehensive manner. As a result, many people have prob…lems identifying solutions and differentiating them from other multi-component systems such as mixtures. This article explains the differences between solutions and other multi-component mixtures, as well as the multiple definitions that the word solution can take on in lab chemistry.There are certain prerequisites for a mixture to be considered a solution. Solutions are multi-component systems. As a result, a solution comprised of only one single pure substance is simply not possible. The components of the solution are one of two things, either a solvent or a solute. When these two components are brought together, a solution is formed. The term solvent is given to the more abundant component, where as the term solute is given to the one that is less abundant. The most common solutions in lab chemistry consist of a liquid solvent, in which a solid solute is dissolved.From a physical point of view, solutions can be divided according to the phase of the solute and the solvent. In the previous section, we mentioned that in most lab chemistry cases, you will run into a solution where the solvent is a liquid and the solute is a solid. A good example of this would be dissolving table salt in water. In this case, water is the solvent, whereas table salt is the solute. Nevertheless, other kinds of solutions are also possible. For example, a solution consisting of a liquid and a gas is also possible. A good example would be ammonia in air. As a matter of fact, a solution can even consist of a solid in a solid as in the case of metallic alloys.Solutions can also be divided according to their chemical compositions and the nature of their bonds. For example, the most predominant type of solution that you will encounter in lab chemistry is the ionic solution. Ionic solutions are formed when ionic solids are dissolved in polar solvents. A good example of this would, again, be dissolving table salt in water. Water is a polar or ionic solvent. Meanwhile, table salt is an ionic solute. When table salt is dissolved in water, it ionically dissociates into positive sodium ions and negative chlorine ions, which are free to move around independently in the water. Non-polar solutions are also possible. In these solutions, the solute atoms occupy the interstitial sites between the molecules of the solvent. They do not actually ionically dissociate and remain whole units. A good example of a case involving non-polar solutions would be dissolving fat in benzene.Now that the differences between polar solutions and non-polar solutions have been identified, one needs to learn how to differentiate between the two of them. In many cases, this will be absolutely crucial to solving a certain lab or chemistry problem. Luckily, there is a simple test that can be done in order to identify a solution as either ionic or covalent. To do this, you simply need to verify whether or not the solution is electrically conductive. The ions in polar solutions are electric conductors that are free to move around. As a result, polar solutions are usually electrically conductive, while non-polar solutions are not. You can use a multimeter in order to gauge whether or not the resistance of a certain solution is high. An elevated resistance means low conductivity, which probably indicates that your solution is non-polar. The opposite also holds true.Learning to define and identify solutions is a crucial part of lab chemistry. Solutions are multi-component systems that are homogenous. In most cases, solutions consist of liquids that are dissolved in solids. The liquids are called solvents, whereas the solids are called solutes. Solutions can be divided into polar solutions or non-polar solutions, depending on how the solute dissolves in the solvent.Although it is definitely not absolute, one can safely say that most ionic solutions are inorganic, whereas most non-polar solutions are organic. This is because it is much more likely that an inorganic salt will be capable of ionically dissociating than an organic compound. (MORE)
Most people can not imagine a life without electrical gadgets. Toasters, ovens, irons, lamps and other appliances have made chores simpler and faster. However, they bring with… them inherent safety issues, in terms of electric shocks and fire hazards. The polarized electrical plug is an accessory that provides a fantastic solution.A polarized plug can be found at the end of an electrical cord. What differentiates it from regular plugs is that the two parallel blades are not equal in length. This plug fits into the electrical outlet in only one way, because the longer blade has to be aligned with the deeper slot. In addition, this type of plug will always have a third blade: the ground. This ensures an alternate route for electric current in case of an internal fault in the device.Most modern electrical houseware units in the U.S. work on 120 volts alternating current. This voltage is high enough to give you a nasty shock. You may have burnt your finger while screwing in a light bulb or removing a bread slice from the toaster. This happens due to incorrect wiring of the electrical device. When done properly, the hot wire should not be accessible externally, and the live current should flow from the hot wire to the neutral wire via the ground. Polarized plugs are handy accessories that ensure proper polarization of the entire circuit. This greatly reduces, if not completely eliminates, the possibility of a shock or sparks.The short and long prong on the polarized electrical plug connect to the hot and neutral wire in the outlet, respectively. The outlet's hot wire is connected directly to the switch on the device. This ensures that its length is kept to a minimum. The path of high-voltage live current is limited in this way, which in turn reduces the possible damage from an electrical fault. The neutral wire of the outlet is connected to the rest of the wiring within the device. As per the U.S. electrical standards and safety regulations, all electrical houseware units must have a polarized electrical plug. Older electrical appliances were fitted with two-prong non-polarized plugs. If you need to use any such devices around the home, first get the plug converted. It may not be required if your appliance works with a transformer, because the input has a low voltage. However, it is better to play it safe by always using polarized plugs. Your family members may sometimes find that the plug doesn't slide into the outlet naturally. This is because the prongs and their respective outlet slots are not correctly matched in width. They simply need to align the prongs the other way. Inform them not to force the plug in incorrectly. The device may still work, but the wiring is unsafe for both the appliance and the user.Each year, there are an unbelievably large number of electricity-related residential accidents. You can stay safe by using polarized electrical plugs on all your devices. It is also important to understand how these accessories work. You will then be able to supervise any electrical rewiring work within your home.The standard way of installing electrical outlets is to have the narrow slot on the right. It is a good idea to mark the narrow prong on the plugs of all your houseware appliances. This way, anyone in your home will be able to plug in a device correctly on the first try. (MORE)
Chemical bonds are what occur when two or more atoms bind together. Some of these bonds are between atoms of the same type, resulting in a pure element. Other chemical bonds o…ccur between atoms of different types and result in molecules. Once formed, most of these bonds cannot be broken down, except by chemical means. Each atom has what is called a "valence shell." This is the outermost track its electrons can take around its nucleus, its outer orbit. The electrons in this orbit are called "valence electrons." These electrons interact to form chemical bonds. There are four primary types of chemical bonds: Ionic, Covalent, Metallic, and Hydrogen. Here is what you need to know for a good basic understanding of each of them.When an atom with only seven in its outer shell comes near an atom with only one electron in its valence shell, the most "electronegative" atom will pull the one electron to itself to complete its outer shell with eight electrons. Salt, or sodium chloride (NaCl) will do this. The Na (sodium) atom then becomes a cation and the Cl (chloride) atom then becomes an anion. They form a loose bond, which is called an ionic bond. The atoms have now become a molecule. Ionic chemical bonding is common between metals and nonmetals. Ionic chemical bonds can usually be broken down by the adding water.When two atoms are similarly electronegative share electrons, it is called a covalent bond. This usually occurs when atoms share two valence electrons, such as in the case of H2. However, there are also double, triple, and even quadruple Covalent Bonds. N2 is an example of a triple Covalent Bond because it shares three pairs of electrons between the two valence shells. Covalent bonds tend to occur between similar atoms, such as between metals or between nonmetals. Oxygen is another good example. It rarely exists except in pairs of atoms, as the molecule O2. Because of this sharing of electrons, the atoms tend to be electronegativity balanced; and, therefore, Covalent Bonds are very strong.Between the ionic bond and the covalent bond lies the polar covalent bond. It occurs when the shared electrons travel around or near one atom more than the other, creating a difference in the electronegativity of the atoms. One becomes slightly positively charged, and the other, slightly negatively charged. The resulting polar molecules will attract other such molecules. A nonpolar covalent bond is one where the electrons are shared equally and the electronegativity of the atoms is balanced.Metallic chemical bonds occur when all of the valence electrons of one or more metal atoms are shared with another. The electrons are termed "delocalized" because they flow all through the atoms, not confined to any shell. The more electrons the atoms have to share in this ocean of electrons, the stronger the bond is. Conductivity of heat and electricity, malleability, and ductility can be explained by this delocalization of electrons. The fact that electrons can move freely through and between the metal atoms is the key.A hydrogen chemical bond does not occur between two single atoms. It only occurs once hydrogen (H) has bonded with another small atom of high electronegativity to become part of a molecule. A highly concentrated positive force is then created on the hydrogen atom because it is so small. This will create a "dipole-dipole interaction," which is a force of attraction to another molecule. However, hydrogen will only bond with itself, oxygen, nitrogen, or fluorine. The hydrogen bond is only about 5 to 10 percent as strong as a covalent bond. Hydrogen Bonding is very important to human life, as it is involved in the bonding of DNA.There are many types of chemical bonding that result in many kinds of substances. Some bonding generally occurs between metals and nonmetals, as in ionic bonds. Other chemical bonds occur only with specific atoms such as hydrogen bonds. All chemical bonds are essential for the processes of life on this planet.A diamond is made up of crystals, which are held together by "Network covalent bonds." This means that the pattern of bonding the same type of atom just keeps repeating on itself. In this case, every carbon atom shares four electrons with four other carbon atoms, which makes one big molecule and forms the crystal. (MORE)
The science behind oil and water is simple. They just don't mix. This little bit of knowledge is the concept behind the makings of a lava lamp. You can create a homemade lava …lamp for kids that doesn't require heating of any kind. The steps below can help you and your kids make a fun, safe, and educational home project.To make a lava lamp for kids, you'll need a clear plastic bottle. Choose a bigger one with smooth plastic and little ridges on its design so that the reaction that will happen is clearly visible. Make sure it comes with a cap that can easily screw on tightly. You will also need a funnel, water, clear vegetable oil, Alka-Seltzer or salt, glitter, and some food coloring.Pour water into the bottle until it is 3/4s full. Use a funnel to prevent any spilling that could occur. Fill your bottle accordingly depending on its size.Next, fill the rest of the bottle with vegetable oil until it is almost full. Again, use a funnel. Be sure leave some space before the bottle's neck to keep in some air.Watch as the water and oil separate. Water is a polar molecule with both a positive and negative charge. Oil on the other hand is a non-polar molecule with a chain of eight or more carbon atoms. Because of its stability, oil will not break apart in or become attracted to water.With the food coloring of your choice, add as many drops as you want until the liquid reaches your desired color. Watch the food coloring fall through the oil and mix with the water.Next, add a pinch of glitter into the bottle for some sparkle. Look for glitter mixed with tiny shapes like stars and hearts that will add something extra to your lava lamp.Cut up the Alka-Seltzer into little pieces and drop one or two into the bottle with the immiscible mixture. The Alka-Seltzer will have no effect on the oil, but it should create fizzy gas bubbles in the colored water as it rises. At the top, the bubbles pop and the gas is released. The colored water will then fall back down, creating motion within the lava lamp.If you don't have Alka-Seltzer or just prefer something else, add some salt instead. Notice that this also creates some movement within the lava lamp. Salt is denser and heavier than water, thus it sinks to the bottom of the bottle. The oil attaches to grains of salt and is brought down with it. Once the salt dissolves, the oil will then rise back to the top.Once the bubbling of the Alka-Seltzer stops, add another piece in to restart the motion of the lava lamp. Add a few more each time to keep the water moving from top to bottom to top. Add more salt to get the oil moving down the bottle, only to rise again to the top once more.Once you or the children have added their desired amount of Alka-Seltzer or salt, screw the cap on tight to make sure that no spilling occurs. Now with it closed, you or your children can carry around the portable lava lamp.Through this project, you can easily teach children firsthand some basic points about chemistry. They will see how oil and water don't mix without outside help from an emulsifier. Creating lava lamps for kids is simple and fun and it instills in them a few lessons in the basics of science. Do this on a rainy day when the kids are stuck inside. It sure beats watching television all day.If the kids lose interest in their lava lamp, you can show them how oil and water mix. Open the bottle and add in an emulsifier such as detergent or honey and watch as the two substances finally meet. (MORE)
Detergent is both polar and non polar, it is able to collect the grease because of it having a non polar head. It also has a polar 'tail' which is why the globules of grease f…loat about in the water. (MORE)
Triglycerides are just fats, which have both nonpolar and polar parts. The areas with carbon-oxygen bonds are fairly polar, while the carbon-hydrogen bonded areas are nonpolar…. Since there are extensive chains of carbon-hydrogen bonds in triglycerides, they are generally nonpolar and don't dissolve in water, a polar liquid. As the saying goes, "like dissolves like," and hence, nonpolar substances dissolve in nonpolar substances, polar in polar. In the case of water, you'll often hear of triglycerides and fats having "hydrophobic" tails, which refer to their hydrocarbon chains, and "hydrophilic" heads, which refer to their oxygen-carbon groups. The hydrophilic heads of triglycerides dissolve in water, but the hydrophobic tails do not. (MORE)