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What is the reason that cells exchange materials with the environment around them?

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What vessels exchange materials with the extra cellular fluid and the blood?

  Capillaries. Since they are only once endothelial cell thick, they can exchange gas, nutrients, and waste across their membrane. Capillaries in the brain have endothelia

What is the process of exchanging materials between blood and body cells?

  Respiration. The main job of blood is to perform external and internal respiration, in the lungs and the tissues. This main job is called gas exchange.