Many merchants joined together in an organization known as a partnership.
the middle ages began around the tenth century snd ended around the sixteenth century
Alchemy. it was essentially a quack science but did influence modern Chemistry.
the vikings started the middle ages.
the population began to grow because feudalism increased
not eating meat on Friday
Celibacy? it was formally nailed down during the Council of Trent, which solidified a variety of church practices and was talked about by catechists as though it was something… current- like the UN or Watergate (then brand new) not something historical such as Gettyburg address or an obsolete treaty. They used to say- The Council of Trent decrees... present tense! the Council of Trent took place in Italy ( not England) in Elizabethan days! OK, Shakespeare survives too, but that"s literature, not religious doctrine.
The middle class developed in the middle ages and was formed out of baker, merchants and trades people who were allowed to own their own land. They operated businesses tha…t sold to the peasants and were free to move around.
Embalming has been practiced in one form or another for thousands of years. It was not much used in medieval Europe, however. Frederik Ruysch is noted as the originator of art…erial embalming (replacing the blood with a preservative) in the 1600s.
There were a lot of new orders in the Middle Ages. Among the better known were the following: Augustinians Benedictines Carmelites Cistercians Cluniacs Dominicans Franciscans …Trappists
During the late middle ages (1000-1500) because of crowding and poor sanitation in the monasteries nurses went into the community. During this era hospitals were built and the… number of medical schools increase. Between 1500 and 1860 (A.D.) politics, the Renaissance all affected nursing. As nursing was not valued as an intellectual endeavor it lost much of its economic support and social status at the start of the Renaissance. The deterioration of Catholicism wich had supported the monasteries, hospitals, and nursing was led to the climax of its decay by the Protestant Reformation. A widespread movement of suppression of monasteries occurred similar to that in England which was brought about by Henry (VIII) who had used the advantage of Protestantism to free himself from Papal authority. The King used his revolt of the church based on the Roman Catholic Church refusal to sanction his divorce. He destroyed over 600 monasteries during his Prostestant revolt. The immediate result of the monastic dissolution was the hospitals and inns were suddently snatched away form a public dependent upon them for many centuries. Which caused the poor to be without any principle organized systsem of relief. An additional effect of the Reformation was the complete withdrawal of medicine from the monastery to the University. Thus medicine found a refuge that was denied to nursing. Medical advancement had been assured while the techniques of nursing remained unchanged in the guardianship of brothers, and nuns who continued practising nursing. The Protestants viewed the woman's place as being in the home raising children. Industrial class women took in work or went out to work. As nursing was not considered acceptable even to the industrial classes nurses were usually immoral, drunken, illiterate, and/or prostitutes. Nurses were considered to be the lowest level of human society. A decline in the quality of publick service for the sick was noticeable twoards the end of the middle ages. It took about 200 years for the public to recognize the need to pay for quality nursing care to restart vocational desireability. The public first had to separate nursing from domestic service in which it had become deeply entangled. Mismanagement, inadequacy, suffering and deliberate exploitation made things worse. Civil appointees who were men undertook leadership and withheld authority from women - who then lost control over nursing. Matrons were put in charge of secular riff raff who were taken on as nurses. The word "Sister" was retained to please the public for amongst the rich and poor it had come to be associated with the sympathy and encouragement of the monastic nuns. The latter half of the period between 1500 to 1860 A.D. saw nursing conditions at their worst and has been called the dark period of nursing. New hospitals had been built but quickly became places of horror as unsanitary conditions caused them to be a source of epidemics and disease. Furthermore a taxation upon windows caused windows to be bricked up in places of the poor and hospitals thus removing natural lighting and fresh air thus creating further a situation which bred disease and epidemics. Seldom were opposite sexes and different disease separated. Often hospital beds were shared. Nurses when off duty slept within hearing range of their patients and were still on call. Crowding of wards often made them impossible to clean. Because of the high demands placed upon nursing staff nursing procedures which were limited and simple became even more limited and simple. Cleansing of patients was no longer attempted. Only the usual nursing treatments such as bleeding and purging were ordered. Because of the the hard work, long hours, poor pay, and poor food respectable women were not expected to do nursing. The majority of the work consisted of housework, scrubbing and laundry which had hours which varied between 12 to sometimes 48 hours. Character nor training was a consideration in nursing. In 1545 the council of Trent decreed that every community of women should live in strict enclosure. It took over 200 years of resistance for women to overcome this decree. The nursing sisters of France made little or no resistance such that their professional standards deteriorated. During the Renaissance (1500-1850 A.D.) the interests in the arts and sciences increased such that there were many developments in the technologies for and care of the sick. Transition from health care by religious orders where nursing was practised were replaced by hospitals where conditions were dependent upon the economic support of the people requiring care. Even though there were significant advancements in science because nursing was still seen as something that should only be done by those who could not find another way in which to make money the nursing proffession did not advance. The dark ages of nursing lasted for three centuries until the mid 2800's when Florence Nightingale brought about a change. Even though the advancement of medicine did not affect nursing during the Renaissance - in the late 1500's several groups began nursing during the Renaissance - in the late 1500's several groups began nursing and tending the sick, poor, and dying. Amongst there groups were St. Francis de Sales, the Order of the Visitation of Mary, St. Vincent DePaul, the Sisters of Charity, Dames de Charite', Louise le Gras, Brothers Hospitallers of St. John, Albuquerque, Order of St. Augustine, St. Camillas De Lellis, Jeanne Biscot, and the Nursing Sisters of St. Joseph de La Fleche. Many of these people came from rich and influential families. Thus setting the trend for their peers to become involved in charitable nursing and institutions of nursing. When such institutions of charitable nursing were shown to do well the ruling classes and churches would begin supporting these econmically. The views of the well to do upon the nursing care of the sick, mentally ill, elderly, dying and indigent had a strong influence upon the presence and quality or lack of nursing care available during the Medieval Times through the Renaissance. )
Christianity was unified House- mainly Roman Catholicism. True, there were different religious orders among the Regular ( by the rules) clergy, but the basic Catholicism was s…tanding united. There was a tendency for France to somewhat attempt to overpower Roman Catholicism with a Catholic Faith of its own- considering the many Saints France has produced, ( St. Louis, Joan of Arc, Ste. Catherine Laboure , Bernadette, etc. this sort of spiritual nationalism is not surprising.
In Middle Ages
(1 pt) Christian knights
The need for money investment stimulated the growth of banks. Also, people started to use credit instead of carrying gold.