Who are some famous scientists and what are their contributions to the fields of science?

Who are some famous scientists and what are their contributions to the fields of science?
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There are literally thousands of famous scientists who have all made very important contributions to the field of science. All the winners of the Nobel Prize are, of course, extremely important scientists. Here are a few examples:Sigmund Freud (discovery of Integrated Trinity) - Germany, born in Czechoslovakia Alfred Nobel (discovery of dynamite) - Sweden Nikola Tesla (electricity field) - Slovenia Albert Einstein (Theory of relativity) - Germany Karl Jung (discovery of second personality of alcoholics = Alter/ego) Gregor Mendel (discovery of genes) Isaac Newton (Laws of Gravity) William Perkin (chemist who invented the first synthetic dye, mauveine) - Britain Herman Mark (The father of polymer chemistry) - Austrian Jew Otto Bayer - German scientist who invented polyurethane. (He's not related to the Bayer family that started the chemical company he worked for.) Otto Rohm and Otto Haas - German scientists who invented acrylate polymers. These are used for things like Plexiglas and the plastic layer of safety glass. Leo Baekeland - Belgian scientist who invented two things: prepackaged photo paper; and phenolic plastic. The photo paper made him rich; the phenolic made him immortal. Agapito Flores - Philippine inventor of the fluorescent lamp. Fe Del Mundo - Philippine inventor of the incubator. Eduardo San Juan - Philippine inventor of the lunar rover.(For more information on the famous scientists of the world, see the list of Related Links, as well as the Related Questions.)
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